Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Elgin Marble Argument in New Light by Michael Kimmelman Essay In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Elgin Marble Argument in New LightÃ¢â¬ by Michael Kimmelman it is discussed how the Elgin Marbles should be in Greece and not in England because of cultural reasons. The Elgin Marbles contribute to the art of the Parthenon, which is currently in ruins due to destruction of the Persians. The British took these pediments from Greece in 1816 when Lord Elgin was ambassador of the Ottoman Empire. Since then, Greeks have been trying to get their works back but the British refuse to hand over the pieces, meanwhile the Greeks had to work with the remaining of the Parthenon, contained in a ramshackle museum. These pieces are part of the Greek culture and since they were created in the country, they belong to Greece. The British have been strong defending their point, saying that the Greeks do not have a good place for the pieces, or that the Elgin Marbles became part of British history for being there more than two decades and being part of the neo-classicism. Even though the British say that the Elgin Marbles belong to them, they offered Greece a chance to have them on loan but under one condition, Ã¢â¬Å"that Greece recognizes BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s ownershipÃ¢â¬ . The British are not thinking about the GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view here, which is a cultural one. It is important for the Greeks because the Elgin Marbles were made in Greece and are part of their history. This is offensive for the Greeks and their culture minister, Antonis Samaras, who says that this would never happen. The British have a good point saying that the Marbles have been on British ground for a lot of time and this has obviously influenced in multiple things, as mentioned already, neo-Classicism or Philhellenism. On the other hand, Greeks disagree with all the British points used against them on why the Marbles belong to them. First of all, the Greeks have a perfect area to place the Marbles, a new museum near the Acropolis. This museum is both big and near the Acropolis, which makes a tourist understand better why the Marbles were made in the first place. Greeks are very sensitive about their culture and history, and this is the reason why Mr. Samaras would not even think about giving the British the ownership of their Marbles. The British say that the Marbles have been with them for a long time, but they have been for longer in Greece. Again, contradicting the British points. The Euphronios Krater is a case similar to the Marbles. The vase belongs to Greece but is held in a museum in Rome, Italy. Here again, the work of art belongs to the Greeks. As mentioned in the article, this is a cultural problem and not a legal one. Mr. Samaras says that taking the marbles is like a family portrait with the loved ones missing. He would probably say the same thing about this Krater that is in a place where it does not belong. Greece has the perfect points to have the Marbles back in their country. They have the museum to preserve them there and the history behind them. The British are disrespectful towards the Greeks for keeping their works of art in their country when they should hand them over to them because it is considered by the Greeks part of their culture.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
1920s Prohibition and the Rise in Crime essays In 1933 the Prohibition on Alcohol was repealed, and the consumption of alcohol was finally made legal, soon after this legalization, Congress passed a law making laws against drugs in the United States. It has been determined by many scholars that ending alcohol prohibition was more harmful in the United States than as it was beneficial. Shortly after this time, a major drug problem began to arise, and the United States has been faced with a drug was ever since. If not for the legalizing of alcohol it is quite possible that our drug epidemic in the U.S. may have been avoided. In 1920, Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment making alcohol consumption illegal. "The Eighteenth or Prohibition Amendment passed both houses of Congress in December 1917 and was ratified by three-fourths of the 48 state legislatures 13 months later. From 1920 until 1933, the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol was prohibited in the United States./ As with tobacco, the opiates, and cocaine, the legislation failed to create a general climate of abstention. And where there was a populace of willing consumers, supply was still able to keep pace with demand." It was very obvious that during the thirteen years that this act was in effect that there was still a major amount of alcohol being supplied in the country. Many organized crime bosses were in power and dispensing of alcohol and producing all over the country, not to mention local people making it themselves. "Alcohol remained available during Prohibition. People still got drunk, still became alcoholics, still s uffered delirium tremens. Drunken drivers remained a frequent menace on the highways... The courts, jails, hospitals, and mental hospitals were still filled with drunks..." The amendment only had one positive repercussion during its time and that was it did cause fewer people in the United States to consume alcohol. It was very obvious to Congress that the law was ineffective, an...
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Rutherford B. Hayes Biography - 19th President of the US Ã Rutherford B. Hayess Childhood and Education: Hayes was born into a family that had a long history of military service. Both his grandparents fought in the American Revolution. Born on October 4, 1822 in Delaware, Ohio eleven weeks after his fathers death, Hayes was raised by his mother. He attended a Methodist school and a college preparatory academy before attending Kenyon College. He graduated first in his class. He then studied law before entering Harvard Law School. He graduated in 1845 and was admitted to the bar. Family Ties: Hayes was born to Rutherford Hayes, a merchant and farmer, and Sophia Birchard Hayes. He had one sister named Fanny A. Platt. On December 30, 1852, Hayes married Lucy Ware Webb. She would later be dubbedÃ Lemonade Lucy for her banning of alcohol at the White House. Together, they had four sons and one daughter.Ã Rutherford B. Hayess Career Before the Presidency: In 1845, Hayes began practicing law in Ohio. From 1858-61, he served as the Cincinnati City Solicitor. Hayes served in the Civil War, rising to the rank of major general of volunteers. He showed valor on the battlefield having been wounded several times. He resigned soon after Lee surrendered in 1865. Hayes was quickly elected as a U.S. Representative serving from 1865-67. In 1868, Hayes became the Governor of Ohio. He served from 1868-1872 and again from 1876-77 when he became President. Becoming the President: In 1876, Republicans chose Hayes to run for president. He was opposed by Democrat Samuel J. Tilden who won the popular vote. However, the vote in three Republican-controlled states was in confusion. Tilden only needed one electoral vote to win while Hayes needed every vote from all three. When doing the recount, many Democratic ballots were ruled invalid in Florida and Louisiana. A investigative commission voted 8-7 along party lines to give all the electoral votes to Hayes allowing him to win. Events and Accomplishments of Rutherford B. HayesÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidency: Hayes began his administration with the Compromise of 1877 by which military occupation of the South ended. This helped satisfy Southerners who were upset over the results of the election. Currency and whether silver should be bought and turned into coins or whether instead greenbacks should be redeemable in gold was in contention. The Bland-Allison Act passed in 1878 over Hayes veto required the government to buy silver in order to create more coins. The idea was that increased availability of money would help farmers and debtors. In 1879, the Resuption of Specie Act passed that backed greenbacks created after January 1, 1879 to be redeemable in gold. In 1880, Hayes had his Secretary of State create a pact with China which restricted Chinese immigration due to an anti-Chinese movement out west. This was a compromise because Hayes had vetoed a bill which didnt allow Chinese to immigrate at all. Post-Presidential Period: Hayes never planned to run for a second term in office and retired in 1881. He spent the rest of his life devoted to causes of importance to him such as providing scholarships to African Americans and encouraging temperance. He was also one of the trustees of Ohio State University. He died on January 17, 1893 of a heart attack. Historical Significance: President Hayes had strongly held views which he pushed forward throughout his administration. He believed in and proposed civil service reform measures. Further, he set down a policy that a canal in Central America could only be under American control as the French were attempting to create one during his administration. This would eventually lead to the development of the Panama Canal.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Tattoos in Greece and Rome - Term Paper Example Pictures of people who have their noses marked on both sides with the four tattooed historical lines were found on the AveyronÃ¢â¬â¢s and TarnÃ¢â¬â¢s prehistoric stones in France. Ã¢â¬Å"Drawings and figurines discovered in a Thracian burial mound near Philippopolis may depict tattooed people, but considering the complexity of the decorations it is more likely that these represent body painting or finely worked figurinesÃ¢â¬ (Tattoo Temple, n.d.). People in Greece and Rome added their own cultural touches as they inherited the art of tattooing, thus taking it to the next level. Archeologists have readily found tattooed mummies from various parts of the world which suggests how common a practice it has been for a long time in history. Tattoos today are an insignia of fashion and style. The contemporary society has endorsed tattoos as a means of styling. The trend of under-skin inking has been around for thousands of years. This paper discusses the history of tattoos in ancient Greece and Rome. The history of tattooing in Europe commences with the ancient historians of Greek and Roman origin. The Greeks inherited the art of tattooing from the Persians, while the Romans gained it from the Greeks. In the early Greek time followed by the early Roman time, tattooing was a practice linked with the barbarians. According to Herodotus, tattoos were voluntarily associated by the Greeks with the barbarians, including the Thracian women known as the Maenads who assassinated Orpheus because of his homosexual concerns with their husbands. Ã¢â¬Å"Herodotus was the first to use the root Ã¢â¬Å"stigÃ¢â¬ as in the pejorative Ã¢â¬Å"stigmaÃ¢â¬ to refer to tattoos as a mark (estichthai) or a Ã¢â¬Å"prickingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ (Random History, 2008). In the ancient times, tattooing was used as a tool to differentiate between the criminals and/or the slaves and the rest of the people of the society. Prisoners and slaves were tattooed the name of Xerxes. Occasionally, tattoos were also used to send secret messages across the lines of enemies. Criminals and slaves were tattooed so that they would have an irremovable mark on their skin to help others identify them as such. This was done intentionally to discourage the criminals and slaves from running away as attempts to escape were common among the two. Later, the Romans used tattoos to pick out deserters as the Roman army was chiefly composed of the mercenaries. The use of tattoos by the early Greek and Romans suggests that their chief use was punishment as has been mentioned by various authors of the Greek and the Roman origin. Tattoos have been discussed in a punitive sense by such Greek authors as Aristophanes, Xenophon, Herodus, Aeschines and Aelius Aristides (Jones, 2000). Plato was of the opinion that a temple robber should be tattooed on the forehead and the hands to have a trace of the offense while Bion of Borysthenes said that his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s face was more of a document because of intense tattooing because o f his status of a slave. The process of tattooing has been recorded by the ancient Roman authors. Aetius is one such Roman physician who described the process of applying and removing a tattoo along with the formula for making the tattoo ink in his famous book; Medicae artis principles. At one point, Plato expressed the opinion that tattoos should be placed on people found guilty of sacrilege and thus, they should be expelled from the Republic. Likewise, Ã¢â¬Å"Suetone, a early writer reports that the degenerate and sadistic Roman Emperor, Caligula, amused himself by capriciously ordering
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Review of the Separation of Powers Section of the Federalist Papers 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 - Essay Example This paper seeks to focus on sections federalist paper. Federalist Papers #47 In this essay, the principle of separation of power is addressed. At the time, the constitution was opposed, as it was perceived to breach separation of power. Those against asserted that the three arms of government are not adequately distinct and independent and power was irregularly distributed. Their worry was that the government would fail, and that freedom would be affected. Madison concurs with this notion on separation of power, mainly on the threat posed by unequal distribution of power. He claims that excessive authority in one branch is a recipe for authoritarian rule and it did not matter the number of men in authority. He claims that no further argument was needed if claims were objective. In contrast, he asserts that these claims lacked basis. He relies on Montesquieu, French in supporting his argument. Montesquieu relied on British constitution as his model. Montesquieu points out that the go vernment branches in constitution are not absolutely separate or distinct. British king could intervene in legislative function when signing treaties. On the other hand, the king has authority of hiring and firing judges. ... Federalist Papers #48 This essay propounds that the three branches needed not be absolutely separate and independent. It argues that each branch of government required minimum power to control the other two. Each branch is given some power by the constitution; however, it was to be controlled to avoid overexploitation of the power. He wrote that it was essential to differentiate between the three branches to be able to protect legal power vested on each branch of government. Madison concurs that conflict of interest are likely to arise due to power overlap. He states that theoretical checks expounded by the constitution are not adequate. He argues that the original drafters of republican government failed to draft laws that could check legislature. This created ways for legislature to abuse its power. He concurs that in hereditary monarchy the king is feared, likewise in direct democracies executive is feared, as legislature is ineffective in controlling powers of executive. This is because in direct democracies, the size of legislature is enormous, and power is scattered hence solving conflict is a challenge. In their envisaged government, the legislature was more likely to abuse the power as more power had been granted to it. On the other hand, legislature controlled a huge chunk of the money and controlled salaries paid to government employees. This was a recipe for corrupt dealing. In comparison presidential and judicial power was just simple and under extreme regulation. There existed no chance for the two branches to breach authority vested on the congress and any attempt was easy to detect (Project Gutenberg, 1992). Federalist Papers #49 Jefferson highlighted the
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Oppression in the Twentieth Century - Essay Example Much of the definition of oppression is attributed to its nineteenth-century roots. Particularly, the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, and John Stuart Mill were pivotal in outlining the systematic nature of oppression, which has tremendous influence in its modern forms. On the one hand, the works and philosophies of Gandhi, de Beauvoir, Malcolm X, among others, have added dimensions to oppression, updating its conception to contemporary twentieth century. Imperialism and colonization dominated the discourse on oppression especially during the early part of the 20th century. From Africa, Asia to Latin America, there was a wave of liberation movements that demonstrated various experiences of oppression and the attempts to be free from it. One of these experiences is the emergence of conflicts such as World War II wherein colonies were expected to provide warm bodies to fight in the frontlines as well as supply the raw materials and augment the war chest of their masters. The wartime sacrifices underscore a form of oppression that has permeated since the previous century and has spilled over to the 20th. Then, individual experiences amidst the dawn of modernity and the increased contact of people from various part of the globe gave rise to the growth of nationalism. This aspect is highlighted in the case of Gandhi. He is one of the most vocal advocates of decolonization in Asia. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s crusade for IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence fro m Britain was inspired by personal maltreatment as he was building his career in Africa as a lawyer. As a non-white person, he experienced being thrown out of first-class train car, barred from certain hotel rooms and beaten for no reason but his color. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy behind the liberation movement he launched underscored a kind of oppression India experienced in its relationship with Britain.Ã
Friday, November 15, 2019
Performance Management and the Law Carlos M GarciaÃ Introduction: Within an organization there are many different ways to follow and obeyed employees regulations laws. These laws are governed by federal, state and judicial legislation, made to avoid lawsuits, discrimination, and to equalize bargaining power between employers and employees. According to (Smither, J. W., London, M., 2009), information would be required based on employees performance management to take further action either against or in favor of the individual. It is legally allowed to support supervisors/ managers and the organization in case of legal action from an employee. To approach these situations, the organization should follow certain steps to be fair to its employees and meet the U.S. federal regulations laws for employee personnel actions. To minimize the risk of employee-initiated litigation, employers must develop a checklist with the points necessary to ensure compliance with fair, consistent and legally sound performance evaluation systems. Such as, Inform employees in advance of performance evaluation standards. When hiring a new employee or adopting new standards, supervisors must update job descriptions and performance assessment forms, and copies should be given to all affected employees. Document all performance problems on a regular basis and on appropriate evaluation or gradual disciplinary action forms it should be very important for the records. An accurate format for conducting the evaluations allows the most complete and accurate recording of the information. Informality, on the other hand, can lead to discrimination claims. Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination in the workplace under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (Miller, F., n.d.). Also, give employees meaningful feedback because a vague, generalized or subjective assessments can lead to litigation. For example, when bosses tolerate an employee with performance problems for months and then suddenly give him a negative assessment and dismiss him, the employee can claim that the action was arbitrary or discriminatory and may be able to show that he was not given an opportunity to improve. Therefore, it should be essential to train supervisors in evaluating employee performance and how to manage the companys assessment system. Every organizations policies and procedures must comply based on federal and state laws related to employees, which allows equal employment opportunity, sexual harassment, safety, and much more. It is the organizations responsibility to provide every employee the policies and procedures related to federal laws such as the standards of conduct, nondiscrimination, benefits, etc. At Comcast, every employee must have a policy pocket book with them at all the time, and every year they need to review the handbook and acknowledge it. The organization must maintain new and old employees informed about U.S. federal regulation equally to all employees. A performance evaluation based on invalid outcomes can lead to adverse impacts, such as, discrimination, involve personal issues, and other situations that can lead to legal actions. For the same reason, legally defensible performance evaluation system must be implemented. Therefore, evaluators must personally know employees performance. The system adverse impact it will always exist some way or another, but it could minimize by continuous system reviews to keep a positive performance appraisal and fairly to all employees equally. Based on (Smither, J. W., London, M., 2009), by including contextual performance as part of the job performance criteria will actually reduce adverse impact in selection since the predictors of contextual performance have little adverse impact (Smither, J. W., London, M., 2009), There are different methods to evaluate performance management within an organization. Since it is not an easy task to assess the performance management to all individuals using criteria of fairness and justice, and at the same time stimulating them (Gilliland, S. Langdon, J., 1998). Therefore, to ensure fairness in the performance process: The organization should develop a system where all employees meets the needs as customers, this way the evaluation will reflect how customers would rate them, if employees do not accept the performance appraisal outcomes the system will not meet the needs and it will result in a conflict (Gilliland, S. Langdon, J., 1998). The opportunity to evaluate managers and supervisors will give employee a sense of fairness. It will help to impove the organization on various different aspect, it will help to identify any issues within the workplace related to sexual harassment, discrimination, favoritism, etc. Value employees opinions and let them participate in situations where the individual can be valued for his/ her performance. Conclusion Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives proposed by the organizations, they must have a suitable staff to compete in the demanding business environment. Therefore, it is important to express that the performance evaluation plays a fundamental role in the companies since through it is possible to determine which is more competent personnel to carry out the activities inherent to the positions. It can be concluded that when considering the human resource as a decisive factor and an important asset, well-defined performance evaluation policies must be implemented to detect failures within organizations, in order to achieve favorable changes in their structure and performance, and maintain a relationship of justice and fairness with all workers. References Gilliland, S.S., Langdon, J.C. (1998). Creating performance management systems thatÃ promote systems of fairness. Josey Bass, 209-243 Miller, F. (n.d.). Ethical discrimination in the workplace. Retrieved on March 22, 2017,Ã from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/ethical-discrimination-workplace-1408.html (Links to an external site.) Smither, J. W., London, M. (Eds.). (2009). Performance management: Putting research intoÃ action (Vol. 21). John Wiley Sons.